HNC理论全书 第四册

《论语言概念空间的基础概念基元》

黄曾阳

科学出版社

2016年4


内 容 简 介


本书是《HNC 理论全书》的第二卷、第四册。HNC 理论以自然语言理解为其核心探索目标,试 图为语言理解的探索开启一条新的途径,以语言概念空间的符号化、形式化为手段,实现人类语言脑 的纯物理模拟。 

本书论述基元概念之外的全部 HNC 概念基元,分为三部分,共八编:第一部分论基本概念,分 基本本体概念和基本属性概念两编;第二部分论逻辑概念,分基本逻辑概念、语法逻辑概念、语习逻 辑概念和综合逻辑概念四编;第三部分论具体概念,分基本物概念和挂靠具体概念两编。

本书适合对语言学、自然语言理解、认知科学等感兴趣的所有读者,特别是语言信息处理方面的研究者及学生参阅。 

 


作者的话 
引文出处缩略语对照表 
第二卷 卷首语 
第一部分 基本概念 
第一编 基本本体概念 ·········· 3 
第零章 序及广义空间 j0 ·············· 7 
第 0 节 序之基本内涵 j00 (278) ··································· 9 
第 1 节 广义空间 j01 (279) ····································· 13 
第 2 节 广义距离 j02 (280) ····································· 19 
第一章 时间 j1 ·················· 21 
第 0 节 时间基本内涵 j10 (281) ··································· 23 
第 1 节 时间之序 j11 (282) ····································· 27 
第 2 节 时间间隔 j12 (283) ····································· 28 
第二章 空间 j2 ·················· 31 
第 0 节 空间基本内涵 j20 (284) ··································· 33 
第 1 节 空间之序 j21 (285) ····································· 35 
第 2 节 空间距离 j22 (286) ····································· 42 
第三章 数 j3 ··················· 45 
第 0 节 数之基本类型 j30 (287) ··································· 47 
第 1 节 数空间 j31 (288) ······································ 51 
第 2 节 数变换 j32 (289) ······································ 54 
第四章 量与范围 j4 ················ 57 
第 0 节 量与范围的基本内涵 j40 (290) ······················· ·········59 
第 1 节 量 j41 (291) ········································ 61 
第 2 节 范围 j42 (292) ······································· 64 
第五章 质与类 j5 ················· 69 
第 0 节 质与类的基本内涵 j50 (293) ································· 71 
第 1 节 质 j51 (294) ········································ 74 
第 2 节 类 j52 (295) ········································ 77 
第六章 度 j6 ··················· 81 
第 0 节 度之基本内涵 j60 (296) ··································· 83 
第 1 节 量变之度 j61 (297) ····································· 85 
第 2 节 质变之度 j62 (298) ····································· 88 
第二编 基本属性概念 ········· 91 
第一章 自然属性 j7 ················ 93 
第 0 节 对比性 j70 (299) ······································ 95 
第 1 节 对仗性 j71 (300) ······································ 96 
第 2 节 主与从 j72 (301) ······································ 97 
第 3 节 特殊与一般 j73 (302) ···································· 99 
第 4 节 本质与表象 j74 (303) ···································· 101 
第 5 节 相对与绝对 j75 (304) ···································· 103 
第 6 节 一与异 j76 (305) ······································ 106 
第 7 节 简单与复杂 j77 (306) ···································· 107 
第 8 节 新与旧 j78 (307) ······································ 108 
第二章 社会属性(伦理)j8 ··········· 111 
第 0 节 伦理之基 j80 (308) ····································· 113 
第 1 节 真与伪 j81 (309) ······································ 113 
第 2 节 善与恶 j82 (310) ······································ 114 
第 3 节 美与丑 j83 (311) ······································ 115 
第 4 节 伦理与理性 j84 (312) ···································· 116 
第 5 节 伦理与理念 j85 (313) ···································· 117 
第 6 节 伦理效应 j86 (314) ····································· 117 

第二部分 逻辑概念 
第三编 基本逻辑概念 ········· 121 
第零章 比较 jl0 ················· 123 
第 0 节 相互比较 jl00 (315) ···································· 125 
第 1 节 集合比较 jl01 (316) ···································· 127 
第 2 节 标准比较 jl02 (317) ···································· 129 
第一章 基本判断 jl1 ··············· 133 
第 1 节 性质判断 jl11 (318) ···································· 135 
第 2 节 势态判断 jl12 (319) ···································· 137 
第 3 节 情态判断 jl13 (320) ···································· 140 
第四编 语法逻辑概念 ········· 143 
第零章 主块标记 l0 ··············· 147 
第 0 节 E标记 l00 (321) ······································ 152 
第 1 节 A标记 l01 (322) ······································ 155 
第 2 节 B标记 l02 (323) ······································ 157 
第 3 节 C标记 l03 (324) ······································ 158 
第一章 语段标记 l1 ··············· 161 
第 0 节 特定语段标记 l10(Ma) (325) ························ 165 
第 1 节 方式标记 l11(Ms) (326) ·································· 165 
第 2 节 工具标记 l12(In) (327) ·································· 166 
第 3 节 途径标记 l13(Wy) (328) ·································· 166 
第 4 节 参照标记 l14(Re) (329) ·································· 167 
第 5 节 条件标记 l15(Cn) (330) ·································· 168 
第 6 节 因标记 l16(Pr) (331) ··································· 169 
第 7 节 果标记 l17(Rt) (332) ··································· 170 
第 8 节 视野 l18(ReC) (333) ···································· 171 
第 9 节 景象 l19(RtC) (334) ···································· 172 
第二章 主块搭配标记 l2 ············· 175 
第 0 节 E搭配标记 l20 (335) ···································· 177 
第 1 节 A搭配标记 l21 (336) ···································· 178 
第 2 节 B搭配标记 l22 (337) ···································· 179 
第 3 节 C搭配标记 l23 (338) ···································· 180 
第三章 语块搭配标记 l3 ············· 181 
第 1 节 一辅一主搭配标记 l31 (339) ································ 183 
第 2 节 辅块搭配标记 l32 (340) ·································· 184 
第 3 节 一辅双标记 l33 (341) ··································· 185 
第四章 语块组合逻辑 l4 ············· 189 
第 1 节 并联 l41 (342) ······································ 193 
第 2 节 串联 l42 (343) ······································ 195 
第 3 节 单向组合 l43 (344) ···································· 202 
第 4 节 双向组合 l44 (345) ···································· 204 
第 5 节 多元逻辑组合 l45 (346) ······························· ···207 
第 6 节 手段 l46 (347) ······································ 216 
第 7 节 参照 l47 (348) ······································ 219 
第 8 节 条件 l48 (349) ······································ 221 
第 9 节 动机 l49 (350) ······································ 222 
第 10 节 目的 l4a (351) ······································ 224 
第 11 节 因果 l4b (352) ······································ 227 
第五章 块内集合逻辑 l5 ············· 231 
第 1 节 集合度量逻辑 l51 (353) ·································· 233 
第 2 节 集合内外逻辑 l52 (354) ·································· 234 
第 3 节 区间参照逻辑 l53 (355) ·································· 235 
第 4 节 位置关系逻辑 l54 (356) ·································· 236 
第 5 节 区域关系逻辑 l55 (357) ·································· 236 
第六章 特征块殊相呈现 l6 ············ 239 
第 1 节 特征块时态 l61 (358) ··································· 241 
第 2 节 特征块形态 l62 (359) ··································· 241 
第 3 节 特征块复合构成 l63 (360) ································· 242 
第七章 语块交织性呈现 l7 ············ 245 
第 1 节 附素分离 l71 (361) ···································· 248 
第 2 节 语块变换 l72 (362) ···································· 249 
第 3 节 句类转换 l73 (363) ···································· 253 
第 4 节 GBK交织 l74 (364) ····································· 265 
第八章 小综合逻辑 l8 ·············· 271 
第 1 节 智力小综合 l81 (365) ·································· 273 
第 2 节 客观因素之综合 l82 (366) ································ 274 
第 3 节 主客观因素之综合 l83 (367) ························ ·······274 
第九章 指代逻辑 l9 ··············· 277 
第 1 节 特指 l91 (368) ······································ 279 
第 2 节 泛指 l92 (369) ······································ 280 
第 3 节 全指 l93 (370) ······································ 280 
第 4 节 代指 l94 (371) ······································ 281 
第十章 句内连接逻辑 la ············· 283 
第 1 节 块间并 la1 (372) ····································· 285 
第 2 节 块间串 la2 (373) ····································· 286 
第十一章 句间连接逻辑 lb ············ 289 
第 1 节 句间并 lb1 (374) ····································· 291 
第 2 节 句间串 lb2 (375) ····································· 292 
第五编 语习逻辑概念 ········· 295 
第一章 插入语 f1 ················ 299 
第 1 节 引导语 f11 (376) ····································· 301 
第 2 节 句首语 f12 (377) ····································· 302 
第 3 节 同位语 f13 (378) ····································· 304 
第 4 节 首尾标记 f14 (379) ···································· 304 
第二章 独立语 f2 ················ 307 
第 1 节 句略语 f21 (380) ····································· 309 
第 2 节 标题语 f22 (381) ····································· 310 
第 3 节 标示语 f23 (382) ····································· 312 
第三章 名称与称呼 f3 ·············· 315 
第 1 节 名称 f31 (383) ······································ 317 
第 2 节 称呼 f32 (384) ······································ 320 
第四章 句式 f4 ················· 325 
第 1 节 陈述句式 f41 (385) ······································ 327 
第 2 节 疑问句式 f42 (386) ······································ 333 
第 3 节 祈使句式 f43 (387) ······································ 338 
第 4 节 否定句式 f44 (388) ······································ 339 
第五章 语式 f5 ················· 341 
第 1 节 模拟语式 f51(389) ······································ 343 
第 2 节 感叹语式 f52 (390) ······································ 344 
第 3 节 强调语式 f53 (391) ······································ 346 
第 4 节 比喻语式 f54 (392) ······································ 347 
第六章 古语 f6 ················· 351 
第 1 节 古语基本特性 f61 (393) ··································· 353 
第 2 节 古语代谢性 f62 (394) ···································· 355 
第 3 节 古语永恒性 f63 (395) ···································· 356 
第七章 口语及方言 f7 ·············· 359 
第 1 节 口语 f 71 (396) ······································· 361 
第 2 节 方言 f72 (397) ········································ 362 
第八章 搭配 f8 ················· 365 
第 1 节 自身重复 f81 (398) ······································ 367 
第 2 节 近搭配 f82 (399) ······································· 368 
第 3 节 远搭配 f83 (400) ······································· 371 
第 4 节 指代搭配 f84 (401) ······································ 373 
第九章 简化与省略 f9 ·············· 375 
第 1 节 简化 f91 (402) ········································ 377 
第 2 节 省略 f92 (403) ········································ 378 
第十章 同效与等效 fa ·············· 379 
第 1 节 同效语 fa1 (404) ······································· 381 
第 2 节 等效语 fa2 (405) ······································· 381 
第十一章 修辞 fb ················ 383 
第 1 节 引申 fb1 (406) ········································ 385 
第 2 节 强调 fb2 (407) ········································ 386 
第 3 节 委婉 fb3 (408) ········································ 387 
第 4 节 夸张 fb4 (409) ········································ 388 
第 5 节 虚幻 fb5 (410) ········································ 389 
第 6 节 拟人 fb6 (411) ········································ 390 
第 7 节 让步 fb7 (412) ········································ 390 
第六编 综合逻辑概念 ········· 393 
第一章 智力 s1 ················· 397 
第 0 节 智力基本内涵 s10 (413) ····················· ··············399 
第 1 节 谋略 s11(414) ········································ 415 
第 2 节 策略 s12(415) ········································ 417 
第二章 手段 s2 ················· 425 
第 0 节 手段基本内涵 s20(416) ···································· 427 
第 1 节 方式与方法 s21(417) ····································· 430 
第 2 节 实力 s22(418) ········································ 436 
第 3 节 渠道 s23(419) ········································ 448 
第三章 条件 s3 ················· 459 
第 1 节 时间条件 s31(420) ······································ 461 
第 2 节 空间条件 s32(421) ······································ 463 
第 3 节 社会条件 s33(422) ······································ 467 
第 4 节 语境条件 s34(423) ······································ 470 
第 5 节 逻辑条件 s35(424) ······································ 472 
第四章 广义工具 s4 ··············· 475 
第 1 节 原料 s41(425) ········································ 477 
第 2 节 能源 s42(426) ········································ 479 
第 3 节 材料 s43(427) ········································ 482 
第 4 节 工具 s44(428) ········································ 486 

第三部分 具体概念 
第七编 基本物概念 ·········· 493 
第零章 宇宙基本要素 jw0 ············ 497 
第 1 节 物质 jw01 (429) ······································· 499 
第 2 节 能量 jw02 (430) ······································· 500 
第 3 节 信息 jw03 (431) ······································· 501 
第一章 光 jw1 ·················· 505 
第 0 节 光之基本特性 jw10 (432) ··································· 507 
第 1 节 自然光 jw11 (433) ······································ 508 
第 2 节 生命之光 jw12 (434) ····································· 509 
第 3 节 人造光 jw13 (435) ······································ 510 
第二章 声 jw0 ·················· 511 
第 0 节 声之基本特性 jw20 (436)··································· 513 
第 1 节 自然声 jw21 (437) ····································· 515 
第 2 节 生命之声 jw22 (438) ···································· 516 
第 3 节 人类活动之声 jw23 (439)··································· 518 
第三章 电磁 jw3 ················ 521 
第 0 节 电磁基本特性 jw30 (440) ··································· 523 
第 1 节 电 jw31 (441) ········································ 526 
第 2 节 磁 jw32 (442) ········································ 530 
第四章 微观基本物 jw4 ············· 533 
第 1 节 元素 jw41 (443) ······································· 535 
第 2 节 物质基元 jw42 (444) ····································· 536 
第 3 节 粒子 jw43 (445) ······································· 537 
第五章 宏观基本物 jw5 ············· 541 
第 1 节 气态物 jw51 (446) ······································ 543 
第 2 节 液态物 jw52 (447) ······································ 544 
第 3 节 固态物 jw53 (448) ······································ 545 
第六章 生命体 jw6 ··············· 549 
第 0 节 生命 jw60 (449) ······································· 551 
第 1 节 植物 jw61 (450) ······································· 553 
第 2 节 动物 jw62 (451) ······································· 557 
第 3 节 人 jw63 (452) ········································ 561 
第八编 挂靠概念 ··········· 565 
第一章 基础挂靠物 fw ·············· 569 
第 1 节 效应物 rw(453) ······································· 571 
第 2 节 概念物 gw(454) ······································· 572 
第 3 节 人造物 pw(455) ······································· 574 
第二章 简明挂靠物 oj(456) ·········· 577 
节 01 关于“pj01*”类概念(世界) ··································· 579 
节 02 关于“pj1*”类概念(时代) ···································· 626 
节 03 关于 pj2*类概念(国家与泛国) ··································· 638 
节 04 关于 wj 类概念(时域与地域) ··································· 641 
节 05 关于 pwj2*类概念(城市与乡村) ·································· 644 
节 06 关于 x 类概念(物性与“兽性”) ································· 645 
术语索引 ················ 649 
人名索引 ················ 657 
《HNC 理论全书》总目 ··········· 663 


>>内容推荐

  数据处理已经走向大数据时代,但数据处理终究不是、也不能替代知识处理,特别是语言知识的处理。知识处理大转向首先需要为此提供新的处理模式,丛书希望推进这一转向,并能引发读者的深厚兴趣。

HNC理论聚焦于语言脑奥秘的探索,对语言概念空间进行形式化、数字化描述,探索实现基于现有计算机结构对语言脑的功能模拟,开发语言超人。


>>作者简介

黄曾阳(1935~)

湖北蕲春人。北京大学物理系毕业,中国科学院声学研究所研究员、博导。20世纪90年代创立了HNC理论(概念层次网络理论)。该理论以语言脑的自然语言理解之谜为其直接探索目标,同时试图为言语脑的计算机模拟(即图灵脑)的实现探索一条新路。1998年出版了《HNC(概念层次网络)理论》,2004年出版了《语言概念空间的基本定理和数学物理表示式》。2005年起,开始撰写《HNC理论全书》,预定10年完成。

曾主持的项目有:“九五”国家重点科技攻关项目“计算机中文信息处理技术及产品开发”中的“汉语理解系统的核心技术”专题;“973”项目“图像、语音、自然语言理解及知识发掘”的“基于概念层次网络理论(HNC)的自然语言理解与处理”;“863”项目“中文信息处理应用技术研究”的“专业和追求活动语境概念林的根概念研究”。